is defined as the biochemical analysis of bodily fluids which supports the disease diagnosis and treatment. Specialty testing uses a chemical reaction to quantify the levels of the chemical compound in the fluids of the body.
Clinical chemistry involves techniques such as immunoassays, spectrophotometry, and electrophoresis to measure substances concentration, such as lipids, electrolytes, enzymes, glucose, proteins, and other metabolic products found in the human blood and urine.
Tested Specimens During Clinical Analysis
It is the most commonly tested specimen. It is acquired by coagulated blood centrifugation. It contains no blood cells or clotting factors but possesses antigens, hormones, antibodies, electrolytes, and other substances including microbes, drugs, and proteins.
Plasma is collected by centrifugation of uncoagulated blood. It includes clotting factors, blood cells, electrolytes (such as magnesium, calcium, sodium, and chloride) glucose, hormones, and proteins (such as fibrinogen, albumins, and globulins)
The clinical test of urine involves 24-hour urine collection. It requires a collection container with preservatives.
CSF also stands for cerebrospinal spinal fluid. It is a clear fluid found in the brain and spine which is highly similar to blood plasma and varies with nearly no protein contents. This fluid is commonly analyzed in clinical chemistry for identifying, or meningitis ruling out.
Majorly Tested Parameters and Their Significance
Glucose levels reflect the efficiency of the body in metabolizing glucose. The random and fasting glucose levels in blood provide support in endocrinological disorder diagnosis, including hypoglycemia, and diabetes.
Lipids are found in various forms, such as body fat, cell membranes part, and sterols, such as cholesterol. The levels of lipid help in diagnosing liver and heart diseases in humans.
For instance, the rise in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood poses a high risk for CVD. The high-density lipoprotein is considered a good cholesterol form that protects from heart diseases, while low-density lipoprotein is a harmful cholesterol form posing a threat to CVD.
On measuring the level of enzymes released into the blood by organs, the problems with the specific organ can be identified.
For instance, enzyme creatine kinase levels in the body reflect the skeletal muscle or heart damage, and aspartate aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase levels support liver disorders. While the amylase and lipase levels reflect pancreatic carcinoma and pancreas inflammation.
Endocrine glands secrete hormones that regulate various bodies of our body. The rise or fall in hormone levels reflects the signal of hyperactive or hypoactive glands respectively.
For instance, the thyroid gland secretes the thyroid-stimulating hormone and the pituitary gland secretes the follicle-stimulating hormone and growth hormones.
The protein concentration in the body reflects the nutritional and metabolic disorders and several cancer forms.
For instance, total protein and albumin levels provide support in the diagnosis of liver or kidney diseases, along with malnutrition.
The varying levels of electrolytes such as chloride, sodium, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, bicarbonate, and magnesium in the body help in the diagnosis of kidney and metabolic disorders.
Therefore, clinical chemistry is prominent due to the diagnosis facilitated by it for various conditions and disorders in the body and thus ensuring their early treatment.