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Search results for 'Soil'

  • Soil factors that affect yield variability in corn production

    By Mario Petkovski

    Updated Aug 1, 2020 

    Data derived from annual USDA-NASS Crop Production ReportsEvery farmer's dream is to have a field that contains fertile soil, sufficient nutrient content, and a right balance between beneficial and harmful microorganisms and insects... Spatial variability refers to the difference in the yield of certain areas in the same field due to unequal characteristics of soil, plants, and terrain. Factors affecting corn yield variability:Soil textureThe percentage of sand, gravel, and clay in the soil determines its texture. With the help of a simple manual technique, one can quickly identify the soil texture in a specific field. Different texture in spatial distribution differently affects corn yield through variations in nutrient capacity and availability, water capacity and transport, binding or decomposition of pesticides, as well as soil stability itself to different destructive forces...

    Categories: Corn

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    Soil Borne Diseases | Define Causes & Control

    By Darren Chan

    Published Aug 28, 2020 

    Soil Borne Diseases, mainly plant pathogens living in the soil with crop residue... The reason for the aggravation of soil-borne diseases is the formation of the dominant population of pathogenic bacteria in soil and the reduction of beneficial microorganisms... The fungus is the leading cause of soil-borne diseases... Causes of Soil Borne Diseases1. Continuous CroppingDue to the long time’s continuous cropping, the root exudates of continuous cropping and some pathogenic microorganisms accumulate in the soil...

    Categories: Agribusiness, Irrigation, Organic Row Crops

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    Soil Health Vs. Soil Fertility

    By Monica Pape

    Published Mar 20, 2018 

    In the 52 Weeks of Agronomy Series I've been posting on my website, I took a week and explained this agronomist's take on soil health vs. soil fertility. To read the article and get caught up on the rest of the series follow along at News | The Accidental Agronomist I spoke at a conference in front of 200 farmers and used the term, custom soil fertility programs. At the time I was working as a sales agronomist for a fertilizer company that offered custom fertilizer recommendations based on a farmer’s soil tests... After my talk, I headed back to my table to see a line of guys with soil tests in their hands...

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    Soil Farmers of the Year 2018

    By Direct Driller Magazine

    Published Jan 19, 2019 

    FARM WALKS WITH THE SOIL FARMERS OF THE YEAR 2018The winners of the FCCT Soil Farmer of the Year competition opened their gates over four days and provided a veritable masterclass in managing soils. Spanning a range of soil types, management systems and enterprises, attending farmers gained insights into their award winning management and a better understanding as to why these farms had been picked as the top three in this year’s competition. The Soil Farmer of the Year Competition, now in its third year, is run by the Farm Carbon Cutting Toolkit and Innovation for Agriculture. The competition aims to find farmers and growers who are engaged with, and passionate about managing their soils in a way which supports productive agriculture, reduces greenhouse gas emissions and builds soil health, organic matter and ultimately, carbon... Simon has been working on improving his soils for the last 20 years, and moved to a notill system 12 years ago, being flexible with both management and rotations to prioritise soil health...

    Categories: Cover Crops

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    An Oregon wetland resource manager examines a soil core sample. Proper soil sampling should accurately capture the variability of a field and provide useful data for input and management decisions. Photo by Jack Dykinga, USDA ARS.

    How to Create the Most Effective Soil Sampling Program

    By Laura Barrera

    Published Oct 1, 2020 

    , now is a good time to prepare for your soil sampling program. Most universities and the NRCS recommend taking soil samples in the off-season, after the last crop harvest, and before the next cash crop is planted... But before you can grab your soil probe and head out to the field, you need to understand best soil sampling practices and have a plan of action for collecting your samples, so you can accurately capture the soil chemistry and variability of your fields. Poor soil sampling practices can result in incorrect data, which can end up costing you in either inputs or yield. “The foundation of understanding or making an appropriate recommendation comes from having a representative soil sample,” says Jason Ackerson, a Purdue University soil scientist...

    Categories: Precision Agriculture, Soil Health

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    Fertility And Soils

    Public
    A group dedicated to providing information on crop fertility and soil qualities.
    Interest: Corn, Cotton, Peanuts, Soybeans, Wheat, Cover Crops, Fertility, Soil Health, Sustainable Agriculture, Conservation Easements, Conservation Plans, NRCS

    Joe Soiler India, Maharashtra, Pune

    Interests: Corn, Cotton, Peanuts, Soybeans, Wheat, Vegetables, Dairy

    soil crumb structure

    What’s the Crumb structure in soil?

    By Darren Chan

    Published Jul 4, 2018 

    First of all,let us understand the soil structureThe soil is a porous system... The solid material in the soil includes both mineral and organic matter. The liquid part refers to the moisture of the soil,which is preserved and moved between the pores of the soil and is the most active part of the soil. The gas part refers to the air of the soil and it is filled with pores that are not occupied by moisture... Crumb structure is a type of soil structure in which the structural units or peds have a spheroidal or crumb shape...

    Categories: Agribusiness, Irrigation, Vegetables

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    Why is soil salinization a problem?

    By Darren Chan

    Published Aug 21, 2019 

    What’s Soil SalinizationSoil salinization is one of the most vital soil problems for agricultural production... Soil salinization usually occurs in arid areas, In these areas, soluble salt ions accumulate in the soil. In these areas where plant growth requires irrigation, the Evaporation and transpiration process leaves salt in the soil. In the beginning, the salt will reduce soil productivity and limit crop yields. As the salt content increases, it kills the vegetation and soil microorganism...

    Categories: Agribusiness, Irrigation, Wheat

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    Hydroponics 101: A Basic Guide to Start Soilless Cultivation

    By Miriam Pitzalis

    Updated Aug 20, 2020 

    Soilless cultivation is an innovative process that was introduced in recent years for protected crops. This practice has been established for the large-scale production of fresh vegetables and ornamental plants, especially in the countries of Northern Europe, with the main purposes of:- Increasing production- Optimizing acreage - Reducing working times- Reducing the need for water and fertilizers - Optimizing climatic conditionsThe continuous climate changes, the increasing interest in environmental impacts, and the availability of cheap facilities and simple technologies all lead to an increased use of soilless cultivation in commercial applications. When talking about soilless crops, we’re referring to two types of systems:- Real hydroponics, without substrate: the root system of a plant is directly in contact with the water and the nutrient solution (floating system, nutrient film technique, aeroponics)- Hydroponics with substrate: the plant grows on inert, organic materials, or a mixture between them (cultivation bags, slabs, pots or bins)In these systems, fertigation feeds the plants and involves the use of water-soluble fertilizers... Advantages and disadvantages of soilless cultivationSoilless cultivation has numerous advantages like:- Increasing unit yields and anticipating harvest- Improving the quality of the final product, such as the size and uniform physical-chemical characteristics of the fruits, due to the controlled and accurate management of nutrition and climatic parameters- Using easily replaceable structures in case of reconversion- Reducing the labor for demanding processing operations, such as tillage and soil disinfection- Reducing water consumption, especially in plants managed in a closed cycle in areas with limited water availability- Reducing the use of pesticides and adopting integrated pest management strategies more easilyAlthough the advantages can be very encouraging in the decision to adopt these systems, it is also necessary to consider the disadvantages and difficulties that must be faced: - Insufficient know-how to understand how to manage fertigation, irrigation, crop care and automatic control unit technology - Need for constant monitoring of various parameters, such as EC, pH, nutrient solution recipe and climate- Greater risk of incurring water or saline stress in case of a blackout, which renders the whole system unusable - Medium-high initial investments - Difficulty in reaching potential productions in the first years, due to facilities management problems - Difficulty in disposing of inorganic substrates at the end of use - Dispersion of the exhausted nutrient solution in the surface layers when using open-cycle systemsWhen you decide to cultivate with a soilless system, you need to choose the ideal system type depending on the place where you intend to work, the plant species, the size, and the budget available... 4: Soilless system with pots for grape cultivation...

    Categories: Irrigation, Precision Agriculture, Vegetables

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  • Joe Soiler India, Maharashtra, Pune

    Interests: Corn, Cotton, Peanuts, Soybeans, Wheat, Vegetables, Dairy

    Marc Suderman United States, WA, Yakima

    Business Title: Marc Suderman Consulting
    Job Title: Certified Crop Adviser
    About: Independent soil & crop nutritionist, consultant, contractor and tech-rep. Uses the Albrecht method for soil nutrient balance and health, with emphasis on microbiology and “plant-ready” nutrients. Twenty years of experience in the San Joaquin valley of California, now relocated to central Washington. Serving growers in the PNW and northern CA.
    Interests: Corn, Cotton, Vegetables, Precision Agriculture, Irrigation, Agribusiness, Ag Policy, Cover Crops, Grapes

  • Fertility And Soils

    Public
    A group dedicated to providing information on crop fertility and soil qualities.
    Interest: Corn, Cotton, Peanuts, Soybeans, Wheat, Cover Crops, Fertility, Soil Health, Sustainable Agriculture, Conservation Easements, Conservation Plans, NRCS

    Feed the Soil, Feed the World

    Public
    Discoveries are occurring at a record pace as we learn what happens in the soil is as important as what happens above the soil. This is a place to ask good questions, share ideas, research, trials, and experiences. Curiosity, passion and an open mind are what drive innovation and change. Sharing ideas and stories help us learn and can reduce the painful (and costly) experiences. Tell me your story(s) and I'll share mine.
    Interest: Beef, Dairy, Grass-Fed Livestock

    #SoilMatters

    Public
    Soil and everything in it is the focus here. Crop Nutritionists and CCAs know that growing a crop is more than planting, watering and applying fertilizer. It requires testing, planning, monitoring and adjusting the plan as needed.
    Interest: Corn, Wheat, Vegetables, Cover Crops, Ag Policy, Precision Agriculture, Organic Row Crops, Irrigation, Agribusiness

    AgNet West Radio Network

    Public
    California and Arizona real farm radio, providing current, relevant, and interesting agriculture news. We are proud to serve the agriculture community. AgNet West is based in California.
    Interest: Corn, Cotton, Peanuts, Soybeans, Wheat, Vegetables, Rice, Canola, Sorghum, Beef, Dairy, Poultry, Swine, Cover Crops, Ag Policy, Precision Agriculture, Organic Row Crops, Irrigation, Timber, Marketing, Agribusiness, Crop Protection, Crop Scouting, Fertility, Soil Health, Sustainable Agriculture

    Organic Citrus

    Public
    We are interested in gathering experiences, solutions and history of organic methods in citrus production. As well as record and document unique policy and market access hurdles organic citrus growers face in each different region of the world.
    Interest: Organic Row Crops, Crop Protection, Fertility, Irrigation, Soil Health, Sustainable Agriculture, Apps, Precision Agriculture, Telemetry, Ag Commentary, Marketing, News, Ag Policy, Agribusiness, Farm Management, Farmland and Real Estate, Operating a Farm, Conservation Easements, Conservation Plans, Cover Crops, Orchard Crops, Organic Specialty Crops, Homesteading

    Precision Ag

    Public
    GPS, precision soil sampling, UAV\\\'s (drones) data acquisition and management, etc
    Interest: Precision Agriculture

    Direct Driller Magazine

    Public
    Direct Driller is a magazine from the UK, designed by farmers for farmers to educate and inform the industry about systems of reduced cultivation and soil health. Sign up to receive your copy.
    Interest: Wheat, Vegetables, Cover Crops

  • Soil factors that affect yield variability in corn production

    By Mario Petkovski

    Updated Aug 1, 2020 

    Data derived from annual USDA-NASS Crop Production ReportsEvery farmer's dream is to have a field that contains fertile soil, sufficient nutrient content, and a right balance between beneficial and harmful microorganisms and insects... Spatial variability refers to the difference in the yield of certain areas in the same field due to unequal characteristics of soil, plants, and terrain. Factors affecting corn yield variability:Soil textureThe percentage of sand, gravel, and clay in the soil determines its texture. With the help of a simple manual technique, one can quickly identify the soil texture in a specific field. Different texture in spatial distribution differently affects corn yield through variations in nutrient capacity and availability, water capacity and transport, binding or decomposition of pesticides, as well as soil stability itself to different destructive forces...

    Categories: Corn

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    Soil Borne Diseases | Define Causes & Control

    By Darren Chan

    Published Aug 28, 2020 

    Soil Borne Diseases, mainly plant pathogens living in the soil with crop residue... The reason for the aggravation of soil-borne diseases is the formation of the dominant population of pathogenic bacteria in soil and the reduction of beneficial microorganisms... The fungus is the leading cause of soil-borne diseases... Causes of Soil Borne Diseases1. Continuous CroppingDue to the long time’s continuous cropping, the root exudates of continuous cropping and some pathogenic microorganisms accumulate in the soil...

    Categories: Agribusiness, Irrigation, Organic Row Crops

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    Soil Health Vs. Soil Fertility

    By Monica Pape

    Published Mar 20, 2018 

    In the 52 Weeks of Agronomy Series I've been posting on my website, I took a week and explained this agronomist's take on soil health vs. soil fertility. To read the article and get caught up on the rest of the series follow along at News | The Accidental Agronomist I spoke at a conference in front of 200 farmers and used the term, custom soil fertility programs. At the time I was working as a sales agronomist for a fertilizer company that offered custom fertilizer recommendations based on a farmer’s soil tests... After my talk, I headed back to my table to see a line of guys with soil tests in their hands...

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    Soil Farmers of the Year 2018

    By Direct Driller Magazine

    Published Jan 19, 2019 

    FARM WALKS WITH THE SOIL FARMERS OF THE YEAR 2018The winners of the FCCT Soil Farmer of the Year competition opened their gates over four days and provided a veritable masterclass in managing soils. Spanning a range of soil types, management systems and enterprises, attending farmers gained insights into their award winning management and a better understanding as to why these farms had been picked as the top three in this year’s competition. The Soil Farmer of the Year Competition, now in its third year, is run by the Farm Carbon Cutting Toolkit and Innovation for Agriculture. The competition aims to find farmers and growers who are engaged with, and passionate about managing their soils in a way which supports productive agriculture, reduces greenhouse gas emissions and builds soil health, organic matter and ultimately, carbon... Simon has been working on improving his soils for the last 20 years, and moved to a notill system 12 years ago, being flexible with both management and rotations to prioritise soil health...

    Categories: Cover Crops

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    An Oregon wetland resource manager examines a soil core sample. Proper soil sampling should accurately capture the variability of a field and provide useful data for input and management decisions. Photo by Jack Dykinga, USDA ARS.

    How to Create the Most Effective Soil Sampling Program

    By Laura Barrera

    Published Oct 1, 2020 

    , now is a good time to prepare for your soil sampling program. Most universities and the NRCS recommend taking soil samples in the off-season, after the last crop harvest, and before the next cash crop is planted... But before you can grab your soil probe and head out to the field, you need to understand best soil sampling practices and have a plan of action for collecting your samples, so you can accurately capture the soil chemistry and variability of your fields. Poor soil sampling practices can result in incorrect data, which can end up costing you in either inputs or yield. “The foundation of understanding or making an appropriate recommendation comes from having a representative soil sample,” says Jason Ackerson, a Purdue University soil scientist...

    Categories: Precision Agriculture, Soil Health

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    soil crumb structure

    What’s the Crumb structure in soil?

    By Darren Chan

    Published Jul 4, 2018 

    First of all,let us understand the soil structureThe soil is a porous system... The solid material in the soil includes both mineral and organic matter. The liquid part refers to the moisture of the soil,which is preserved and moved between the pores of the soil and is the most active part of the soil. The gas part refers to the air of the soil and it is filled with pores that are not occupied by moisture... Crumb structure is a type of soil structure in which the structural units or peds have a spheroidal or crumb shape...

    Categories: Agribusiness, Irrigation, Vegetables

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    Why is soil salinization a problem?

    By Darren Chan

    Published Aug 21, 2019 

    What’s Soil SalinizationSoil salinization is one of the most vital soil problems for agricultural production... Soil salinization usually occurs in arid areas, In these areas, soluble salt ions accumulate in the soil. In these areas where plant growth requires irrigation, the Evaporation and transpiration process leaves salt in the soil. In the beginning, the salt will reduce soil productivity and limit crop yields. As the salt content increases, it kills the vegetation and soil microorganism...

    Categories: Agribusiness, Irrigation, Wheat

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    Hydroponics 101: A Basic Guide to Start Soilless Cultivation

    By Miriam Pitzalis

    Updated Aug 20, 2020 

    Soilless cultivation is an innovative process that was introduced in recent years for protected crops. This practice has been established for the large-scale production of fresh vegetables and ornamental plants, especially in the countries of Northern Europe, with the main purposes of:- Increasing production- Optimizing acreage - Reducing working times- Reducing the need for water and fertilizers - Optimizing climatic conditionsThe continuous climate changes, the increasing interest in environmental impacts, and the availability of cheap facilities and simple technologies all lead to an increased use of soilless cultivation in commercial applications. When talking about soilless crops, we’re referring to two types of systems:- Real hydroponics, without substrate: the root system of a plant is directly in contact with the water and the nutrient solution (floating system, nutrient film technique, aeroponics)- Hydroponics with substrate: the plant grows on inert, organic materials, or a mixture between them (cultivation bags, slabs, pots or bins)In these systems, fertigation feeds the plants and involves the use of water-soluble fertilizers... Advantages and disadvantages of soilless cultivationSoilless cultivation has numerous advantages like:- Increasing unit yields and anticipating harvest- Improving the quality of the final product, such as the size and uniform physical-chemical characteristics of the fruits, due to the controlled and accurate management of nutrition and climatic parameters- Using easily replaceable structures in case of reconversion- Reducing the labor for demanding processing operations, such as tillage and soil disinfection- Reducing water consumption, especially in plants managed in a closed cycle in areas with limited water availability- Reducing the use of pesticides and adopting integrated pest management strategies more easilyAlthough the advantages can be very encouraging in the decision to adopt these systems, it is also necessary to consider the disadvantages and difficulties that must be faced: - Insufficient know-how to understand how to manage fertigation, irrigation, crop care and automatic control unit technology - Need for constant monitoring of various parameters, such as EC, pH, nutrient solution recipe and climate- Greater risk of incurring water or saline stress in case of a blackout, which renders the whole system unusable - Medium-high initial investments - Difficulty in reaching potential productions in the first years, due to facilities management problems - Difficulty in disposing of inorganic substrates at the end of use - Dispersion of the exhausted nutrient solution in the surface layers when using open-cycle systemsWhen you decide to cultivate with a soilless system, you need to choose the ideal system type depending on the place where you intend to work, the plant species, the size, and the budget available... 4: Soilless system with pots for grape cultivation...

    Categories: Irrigation, Precision Agriculture, Vegetables

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    4 Steps to Building Soil Organic Matter in the South

    By Laura Barrera

    Published Jul 18, 2018 

    As we learn more about what goes on in the world beneath our feet, increased attention has been placed on soil organic matter... While it only makes up a small percentage of most soils, the Sustainable Agriculture Research & Education (SARE) says it’s the “very foundation for healthy and productive soils” — and the more organic matter there is, the better the results. Consider the following findings from SARE and the NRCS:A study of soils in Michigan demonstrated potential crop-yield increases of about 12% for every 1% organic matter... One percent of organic matter in the top 6 inches of soil holds approximately 27,000 gallons of water per acre... When North Carolina corn yield champion Russell Hedrick increased his soil organic matter from 2...

    Categories: Cover Crops

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    Middle Tennessee State University soil scientist Samuel Haruna analyzes a soil sample from his research fields to see how cover crops impact soil temperature. Photo provided by Samuel Haruna.

    Struggling with Soil Temperature During Planting? Cover Crops Can Help

    By Laura Barrera

    Updated Aug 17, 2020 

    You can pick the right seed, use the right equipment, apply the right inputs, and plant at the right depth, but without the right soil temperature, your crops are likely to struggle... Why Soil Temperature MattersWhile soil temperature has an impact on the soil and crop production throughout the growing season, the NRCS says it’s most critical at planting, when it drives seed germination and directly affects plant growth. “Most soil organisms function best at an optimum soil temperature,” says the USDA agency, adding that soil temperature influences soil moisture content, aeration, and the availability of plant nutrients. This graphic from the NRCS shows what happens to plants and soil life based on the soil temperature. The soil has to warm up to a certain degree for plants to get off to a good start, but if it continues to heat up and does so rapidly, that can harm plant growth...

    Categories: Cover Crops

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  • Why do fertilizer recommendations differ from lab to lab?

    By Anonymous Member

    Published Mar 12 

    Categories: Fertility, Soil Health

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  • Posted By Mario Petkovski
    Aug 1, 2020 

    https://agfuse.com/article/soil-factors-that-affect-yield-variability-in-corn-production
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    Posted By Monica Pape
    Mar 20, 2018 

    https://agfuse.com/article/soil-health-vs-soil-fertility
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    Posted By Direct Driller Magazine
    Jan 19, 2019 

    https://agfuse.com/article/soil-farmers-of-the-year-2018
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    Posted By Darren Chan
    Aug 28, 2020 

    https://agfuse.com/article/soil-borne-diseases-define-causes-amp-control
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    Soil moisture based irrigation test in a remotely monitored automated system

    Author: Ronny Gorata Matenge

    Publisher: Zenodo

    The proposed paper aims at determining the most efficient soil moisture monitoring method in an intelligent remotely monitored system. The project also demonstrates the economic viability of an integrated system of production were water requirement, nutrients and pH are kept optimum automatically. The system is designed to overcome the challenges of water wastage, nutrition deficit, pH imbalance and leaching of nutrients. This system is powered by Solar System, controlled by Microcontroller and programmed using LabVIEW Software. The Microcontroller is connected GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) wireless network, which allows the system to communicate with the farmer remotely using a mobile phone. This proposed smart farming technology is environmentally friendly, efficient, cost effective and gives the farmer the power to control and monitor production in real time.

    Illustration Photo: BSU Cooper Farm has a network of environmental sensors, monitoring weather, soil moisture and water quality (credits: Fondriest Environmental / Flickr Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC 2.0))

    Check more https://adalidda.com/posts/Exeoawtsxsi3jkHyh/soil-moisture-based-irrigation-test-in-a-remotely-monitored

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    Posted By Kosona Chriv
    Aug 15, 2016 

    Soil Salinity and Moisture measurement system for Grapes Field by Wireless Sensor Network

    Authors: M.K. Bhanarkar and P.M. Korake

    © 2016 M.K. Bhanarkar and P.M. Korake. This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.

    Publisher: Cogent Engineering

    Soil moisture and salinity measurement are the essential factors for crop irrigation as well as to increase the yield. Grapes eminence depends on the water volume contents in soil and soil nutrients. Based on these conditions, we determined water demand for best quality of grapes by wireless sensor network (WSN). Using lot of chemical fertilizers increases soil salinity but reduces soil fertility, soil salinity defines electrical conductivity or salty soil. Precise agriculture systems are integrated with multiple sensors to monitor and control the incident. Integrated WSN is designed and developed to measure soil moisture and salinity. ATmega328 microcontroller, XBee and Soil sensors are integrated across the system. This system is more competent, it can be helpful to automatic irrigation system and soil salinity monitoring.
    https://adalidda.net/posts/CuZtbA2tRuQibRzn7/soil-salinity-and-moisture-measurement-system-for-grapes

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    Posted By Marc Suderman
    Oct 28, 2015 

    Soil Fun Fact:
    Magnesium, pound for pound, can raise the pH up to 1.4 times higher than calcium. - "Mainline Farming for Century 21", p. 90 - Dan Skow, D.V.M.

    pH is a symptom of the soil rather than a problem. When you adjust the Ca:Mg ratio into the proper proportions (based on the CEC) the pH will self-regulate towards a neutral 7 range.
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    Soil and Crop Management Strategies to Ensure Higher Crop Productivity within Sustainable Environments

    Authors: Farooq Shah and Wei Wu

    Journal Title: Sustainability

    ISSN: 2071-1050 (Online)

    Publisher: MDPI AG

    The rising population and reduction in the amount of land and some other resources have created tremendous pressure on current agricultural producers to meet the increasing food demands. To cope with this challenge, certain key inputs, such as fertilizers and other chemicals, are overused, which are worsening the surroundings. This intensive agricultural production without adherence to ecological sustainability has led to declining soil health, land degradation, and severe environmental problems. So, future efforts to feed the growing population should aim for greater agricultural production within sustainable environments. In this regard, innovative steps are needed, as business-as-usual policies lack the potential to cope with these challenges. The concept of agricultural sustainability and various soil and crop management strategies (SCMS) that have been designed to optimize crop yield under sustainable environmental conditions are discussed, including nutrient management, site specific nutrient management (SSNM), integrated nutrient management (INM), integrated soil fertility management (ISFM), integrated soil-crop system management (ISSM), ridge-furrow mulching systems (RFMS), sustainable water management (SWM), conservation agriculture (CA), sustainable land management (SLM), vertical/sky farming, and integrated crop management, and breeding strategies as well as other approaches combined with technological and behavioural changes. The present review suggests that a sustainable production system can be developed by combining the multifaceted efforts under SCMS practices with short- and long-term preventive measures. Reducing chemicals’ usage, such as that of fertilizers and pesticides, plus improvements in the crop input use efficiency could minimize greenhouse gases emissions while protecting the environment. Sustainable agriculture holds promise for humankind and the planet Earth, and it can be successful if all developed and developing nations stand together to seek ‘our common future’ to produce more food while generating less environmental pressure.

    Illustration Photo: Plastic-lined farm pond for new, extensive date palm farm. South of the Jordan Valley, Jordan. (credits: Amelia Altz-Stamm / Water Alternatives / Flickr Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC 2.0))

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    Soil Less Farming With Industry 4.0

    Authors: P. Akhila, R. Senthil Prabha

    Journal of Internet of Things and Information Technology: 2 pp. 25- 37.

    Publishers: MANTECH PUBLICATIONS / ZENODO

    An Internet of Things (IoT) architecture for soil-less farming systems using Industry 4.0 is introduced. The architecture emphasizes the control of water quality in distributed soil-less food production systems by adhering to Industry 4.0 standards. Soil less agriculture can be defined as growing plants in the greenhouse system in solid environments other than soil which is enriched in nutritional solutions. There are two types of soil less agriculture 1) Hydroponics – which grows plants in water 2) Aerologics - which grows plants in air. Soilless cultivation is highly used in protected agriculture to improve control over the growing environment and to avoid uncertainties in the water and nutrient status of the soil. Industry 4.0 is the current trend of data exchange and automation in manufacturing industrial technologies. Industry 4.0 is a combination of cyber-physical systems, the Internet of things, cloud computing and cognitive computing. Industry 4.0 is also referred as the fourth industrial revolution. Although, it has been applied for monitoring soil-less farming, where cyber physical system is used to control the water nutrients which highly supports to grow plants. Cognitive computing can help soil less farming to identify risks and frauds. It analyses information to predict water, nutrients using Naive Bayes Algorithm. The acquired data can be stored in cloud for future reference.

    Illustration Photo: Hydroponics Farm in Duivendrecht, Netherlands (credits: jbdodane / Flickr Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC 2.0))

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    Soil Salinity and Moisture measurement system for Grapes Field by Wireless Sensor Network

    Soil moisture and salinity measurement are the essential factors for crop irrigation as well as to increase the yield. Grapes eminence depends on the water volume contents in soil and soil nutrients. Based on these conditions, we determined water demand for best quality of grapes by wireless sensor network (WSN). Using lot of chemical fertilizers increases soil salinity but reduces soil fertility, soil salinity defines electrical conductivity or salty soil. Precise agriculture systems are integrated with multiple sensors to monitor and control the incident. Integrated WSN is designed and developed to measure soil moisture and salinity. ATmega328 microcontroller, XBee and Soil sensors are integrated across the system. This system is more competent, it can be helpful to automatic irrigation system and soil salinity monitoring.

    Illustration Photo: Wineyard (Public Domain from Pixabay.com)

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